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Glossary

Is a collective term for substances which are added to food in order to increase its shelf-life, as sugar substitutes, to give a specific taste, consistency or colour. Additives are always declared in the product contents. Sometimes they are declared by name and sometimes using a European code (E-number).
An organic compound containing the group — CHO, formed by the oxidation of alcohols. Typical aldehydes include methanal (formaldehyde) and ethanal (acetaldehyde).
A substance that causes an allergic reaction.
The oval edible nutlike seed (kernel) of the almond tree, growing in a woody shell, widely used as food.
(APM) is an artificial non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages. In the European Union, it is codified as E951. Aspartame is a methyl ester of the aspartic acid/phenylalanine dipeptide.
A panel of experts set up by the European Food Safety Authority concluded in 2013 that aspartame is safe for human consumption at current levels of exposure. As of 2018, evidence does not support a long-term benefit for weight loss or in diabetes.Because its breakdown products include phenylalanine, people with the genetic condition phenylketonuria (PKU) must be aware of this as an additional source.
Azo dyes are organic compounds bearing the functional group R−N=N−R′, in which R and R′ are usually aryl. They are a commercially important family of azo compounds, i.e. compounds containing the linkage C-N=N-C. Azo dyes are widely used to treat textiles, leather articles, and some foods. Chemically related to azo dyes are azo pigments, which are insoluble in water and other solvents.
Azorubine is an azo dye produced only by chemical synthesis as a disodium salt. In its dry form, the product appears red to maroon. It is mainly used in foods which are heat-treated after fermentation. It has E number E122.